Jerusalem has over the millennia been both a destination in and of itself and a junction leading many travelers on to other ends. Triumphant or defeated, armies have stormed the city from the four corners of the earth. And so have traders, making gains on some occasions and suffering losses on others. Pilgrims too have frequented the city, and some remained while others departed. Jerusalem has therefore morphed into a melting pot of ethnicities, thought, accents and scriptures. The living as well as the dead who once meandered through its hills have stored their memories in the city, imbuing it with an endless cumulative cultural heritage.